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为了冷却数据中心服务器,微软转向沸腾的液体威廉希尔体育官网

Quincy, Washington– Ping!

Microsoft员工之间发送的电子邮件和其他通信实际上是在哥伦比亚河东岸的这个数据中心包威廉希尔体育官网装有计算机服务器的钢制储罐内的液体煮沸。

Unlike water, the fluid inside the couch-shaped tank is harmless to electronic equipment and engineered to boil at 122 degrees Fahrenheit, 90 degrees lower than the boiling point of water.

由服务器正在进行的工作产生的沸腾效果,从劳动的计算机处理器带来热量。低温沸腾使得服务器能够以完全的功率连续运行,而不会因过热而导致失效。

在罐内,从沸腾的流体上升的蒸汽升起在罐盖中的冷却冷凝器接触,使蒸汽导致液体变为液体并雨部返回到浸入式服务器上,产生闭环冷却系统。

“我们是在华盛顿州雷德蒙德的数据中心高级开发的主要硬件工程师Husam Alissa Husam Alissa Husam Alissa Husam Alissa。威廉希尔体育官网

两名男子进入浸入式冷却罐,以便在服务器刀片上工作
Ioannis Manousakis, a principal software engineer with Azure (left), and Husam Alissa, a principal hardware engineer on Microsoft’s team for datacenter advanced development (right), inspect the inside of a two-phase immersion cooling tank at a Microsoft datacenter. Photo by Gene Twedt for Microsoft.

Moore’s Law for the datacenter

两相浸没冷却的生产环境部署是微软长期计划的下一步,以便在空气冷却计算机芯片技术的可靠进步时跟上更快,更强大的数据中心计算机的需求。威廉希尔体育官网

几十年来,芯片前进源于将更多晶体管包装到同一尺寸芯片上,大致加倍每两年加倍计算机处理器的速度,而不会增加其电力需求。

This doubling phenomenon is called Moore’s Law after Intel co-founder Gordon Moore, who observed the trend in 1965 and predicted it would continue for at least a decade. It held through the 2010s and has now begun to slow.

这是因为晶体管宽度缩小到原子尺度并且正在达到物理限制。同时,诸如人工智能等高性能应用的更快的计算机处理器的需求已经加速,Alissa指出。

为了满足性能需求,计算行业转向芯片架构,可以处理更多电力。例如,中央处理单元或CPU,例如,每芯片的150瓦增加到300多瓦。图形处理单元或GPU,每个芯片增加到700多瓦。

通过这些处理器泵浦的电力越多,芯片的热量越热。增加的热量升高了冷却要求,以防止芯片发生故障。

“空气冷却还不够,”雷德蒙德微软数据中心高级开发集团的杰出工程师和杰出的工程师和副总裁。威廉希尔体育官网“这就是让我们沉浸式冷却的原因,在那里我们可以直接煮沸芯片的表面。”

他注意到液体中的热传递,比空气更有效的数量级。

更重要的是,他补充说,切换到液体冷却将摩尔的定律思维方式带到整个数据中心。

“Liquid cooling enables us to go denser, and thus continue the Moore’s Law trend at the datacenter level,” he said.

Christian Belady站在两相浸没式冷却箱前面
基督徒Belady,杰出的工程师和微软数据中心高级开发组的副总裁,在Microsoft Datacenter的两相浸没式冷却箱威廉希尔体育官网旁边站立。由Gene Twedt为微软的照片。威廉希尔体育官网

从Cryptocurrency Miners吸取的课程

Liquid cooling is a proven technology, Belady noted. Most cars on the road today rely on it to prevent engines from overheating. Several technology companies, including Microsoft, are experimenting with cold plate technology, in which liquid is piped through metal plates, to chill servers.

参与者在加密电力行业开创性液体浸没冷却计算设备,用它来冷却记录数字货币交易的芯片。

威廉希尔体育官网Microsoft研究了液体浸入了用于高性能计算应用的冷却解决方案,如AI。除其他外,调查显示,两相浸没冷却降低了任何给定服务器的功耗5%至15%。

调查结果激励了微软团队与之合作威廉希尔体育官网Wiwynn., a datacenter IT system manufacturer and designer, to develop a two-phase immersion cooling solution. The first solution is now running at Microsoft’s datacenter in Quincy.

长型罐填充3米的工程液。3M的液体冷却流体具有使它们有效的绝缘体的介电性能,使得服务器通常在完全浸入流体中进行正常工作。

根据Microsoft的Marcus Fontoura,Microsoft and Corporate副总裁,这种转变为两相液体浸没式冷却能够增加云资源的有效管理的灵活性。威廉希尔体育官网

例如,管理云资源的软件可以将数据中心的突然尖峰分配给液体冷却罐中的服务器。这是因为这些服务器可以在高电平的电力下运行 - 一个名为超频的过程 - 没有过热的风险。

“例如,我们知道,当你到达1点钟或2点时,我们就有一个团队,有一个巨大的尖峰,因为人们正在加入会议,”Fontoura说。“沉浸式冷却使我们能够更灵活地处理这些爆发-Y工作负载。”

服务器刀片浸入鼓泡两相浸没式冷却罐中
沸腾的液体在Microsoft Datacenter上通过计算机服务器产生的热量。威廉希尔体育官网威廉希尔体育官网Microsoft是第一个在生产环境中运行两相浸没冷却的云提供商。由Gene Twedt为微软的照片。威廉希尔体育官网

可持续数据中心

Fontoura补充说,将双相inmoStrectEd Server添加到可用计算资源的混合中,还允许机器学习软件在数据中心中更有效地管理这些资源,从电源和冷却到维护技术人员。

“我们对效率的影响不仅有巨大影响,而且对可持续性的影响巨大影响,因为你确保没有浪费,我们部署的每一块设备都将得到很好的利用,”他说。

液体冷却也是一种无水技术,这将有助于微软符合其威廉希尔体育官网致力于补充更多的水而不是在这十年结束时消耗。

The cooling coils that run through the tank and enable the vapor to condense are connected to a separate closed loop system that uses fluid to transfer heat from the tank to a dry cooler outside the tank’s container. Because the fluid in these coils is always warmer than the ambient air, there’s no need to spray water to condition the air for evaporative cooling, Alissa explained.

威廉希尔体育官网微软与基础设施行业合作伙伴一起也调查如何以减轻液体损失的方式运行坦克,并且对环境没有影响。

“If done right, two-phase immersion cooling will attain all our cost, reliability and performance requirements simultaneously with essentially a fraction of the energy spend compared to air cooling,” said Ioannis Manousakis, a principal software engineer with Azure.

四个团队成员站在房屋前,将液体冷却罐装入
微软威廉希尔体育官网团队正在探索两相浸没式冷却技术。Pictured from left to right: Dave Starkenburg, datacenter operations management, Christian Belady, distinguished engineer and vice president of Microsoft’s datacenter advanced development group, Ioannis Manousakis, principal software engineer with Azure, and Husam Alissa, principal hardware engineer on Microsoft’s team for datacenter advanced development. Photo by Gene Twedt for Microsoft.

‘We brought the sea to the servers’

威廉希尔体育官网微软对两阶段浸没式冷却的调查是公司的多管策略的一部分,使数据中心更具可持续和高效建设,运作和维护。

For example, the datacenter advanced development team is also exploring the potential to使用氢燃料电池instead of diesel generators for backup power generation at datacenters.

液体冷却项目类似于Microsoft’s Project Natick, which is exploring the potential of underwater datacenters that are quick to deploy and can operate for years on the seabed sealed inside submarine-like tubes without any onsite maintenance by people.

除了用于工程的流体,水下的数据中心填充干燥的氮气。用风扇和热交换管道系统冷却服务器,将管道海水通过密封管泵送。

Project Natick的一个主要发现是海底上的服务器经历了一个 - 第八次在土地数据中心中的副本服务器的故障率。初步分析表明氧气缺乏湿度和腐蚀性效应主要是对水下服务器的卓越性能负责。

Alissa预计液体浸泡罐内的服务器将经历类似的卓越性能。“我们将大海带到服务器上,而不是将数据中心放在大海下,”他说。

IOAnnis Manousakis从两相浸没式冷却罐中取出了服务器刀片
Ioannis Manousakis, a principal software engineer with Azure, removes a server blade from a two-phase immersion cooling tank at a Microsoft datacenter. Photo by Gene Twedt for Microsoft.

The future

If the servers in the immersion tank experience reduced failure rates as anticipated, Microsoft could move to a model where components are not immediately replaced when they fail. This would limit vapor loss as well as allow tank deployment in remote, hard-to-service locations.

What’s more, the ability to densely pack servers in the tank enables a re-envisioned server architecture that’s optimized for low-latency, high-performance applications as well as low-maintenance operation, Belady noted.

例如,这种坦克可以在一个城市中间的5G蜂窝通信塔下部署,用于自驾驶汽车等应用。

现在,微软有一个坦威廉希尔体育官网克运行工作负载in a hyperscale datacenter. For the next several months, the Microsoft team will perform a series of tests to prove the viability of the tank and the technology.

“This first step is about making people feel comfortable with the concept and showing we can run production workloads,” Belady said.

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约翰罗奇writes about Microsoft research and innovation. Follow him onTwitter